Journal of Computing Research and Innovation // <p><strong>Journal of Computing Research and Innovation (<em>eISSN : 2600-8793</em>)</strong> is a double-blind peer-reviewed, open access journal which is published bi-anually in March and September. JCRINN is managed by Computer Science Department, Faculty of Computer and Mathemathical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perlis Branch, MALAYSIA.</p> <p><strong>Frequency of Publication</strong> : Twice a year (March and September)</p> <p><strong>Manuscript Language:</strong> English</p> <p><strong>Abstracting and Indexing</strong></p> <p><strong>- </strong><a href="">MyJurnal</a><br />- <a href=";requestCount=0&amp;db=edsdoj&amp;an=edsdoj.676564d0ed974f01a6451b392ae51667&amp;isbn">EBSCO</a><br />- <a href=";as_sdt=0%2C5&amp;">Google Scholar</a><br />- <a href=",the%20fields%20of%20Computer%20science.">UiTM Journal</a><br />- <a href="">Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)</a><br />- <a href=";sort=year&amp;from_ui=yes">CrossRef</a><br />- <a href="">Scilit</a><br />- <a href=";q=jcrinn">OCLC WorldCat</a><br />- <a href="">Index Copernicus</a></p> Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Perlis en-US Journal of Computing Research and Innovation 2600-8793 Computing The Performance Parameters of A Fuzzy Markovian Queueing System Fm/Fm/1 In Transient Regime By The Flexible Alpha-Cuts Method // <p><em>This scientific article sets out to solve the following fundamental problem to calculate the performance parameters of the FM/FM/1 queuing system in transient state. To resolve this problem the fuzzy arithmetic of </em><em> cuts and intervals was used in transient state (TS). To achieve the expected results of our work, we used the analytical method with its different stages which are : selecting textual or visual documents ( books, articles, conferences, seminars,... with or without internet); read and analyze the content of these documents; record selected documents related to our research topic; interpret during the reading and the classification, the data obtained. This method helped us to identify the appropriate mathematical approach to evolve the performance of the queuing system under study. This is precisely the relaxed a-cuts and intervals. To illustrate this approach, a numerical example is given in the sixth section. The membership function enabled us to represent the graphs of the performance parameters of the FM/FM/1 queuing system in the three-dimensional space in the transient regime in a fuzzy environment.</em></p> Jean Alonge w'Omatete Rostin Mabela Makengo Matendo Daniel Lama Okenge Claude Mfumu Mbikudi Bopatriciat Boluma Mangata Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Computing Research and Innovation 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 8 1 17 31 10.24191/jcrinn.v8i1.347 Analysing Technology Acceptance for Digital Learning in Islamic Education: The Role of Religious Perspective on ICT // <p><em>Whether in general education or Islamic education, information and communication technologies (ICT) have shown to be effective in boosting learning and teaching processes. However, the optimal utilization of ICT in Islamic education is hardly observed, and its acceptance is rarely analysed. Therefore, the present study evaluated factors influencing individuals in Islamic education to adopt ICT based on the modified unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model by incorporating two external factors: personal innovativeness and a religious perspective on the ICT aspect. The study employed a survey method to collect data from 225 valid respondents from Indonesia and applied a partial least squares-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) approach for analysis purposes. The study’s findings suggest that three factors significantly influenced behavioural intention to utilize ICT in Islamic education. These factors are the religious perspective on ICT, personal innovativeness, and social influence, with the religious perspective being more effective factor on behavioural intention than other factors. Moreover, religious perspective, facilitating conditions, and behavioural intention significantly affected actual ICT usage. Both effort and performance expectancies did not significantly affect behavioural intention to use ICT. Besides that, personal innovativeness was found insignificant in influencing usage behaviour, however, it significantly affected effort expectancy, while religious perspective significantly influenced performance expectancy. Finally, the study’s model explained 55.1% of behavioural intention and 54.0% of usage behaviour. The implications of the findings for practical and theoretical contributions are discussed in this paper.</em></p> Mussa S Abubakari Gamal Abdul Nasir Zakaria Priyanto Priyanto Dewi Triantini Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Computing Research and Innovation 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 8 1 1 16 10.24191/jcrinn.v8i1.344 The Implementation of Augmented Reality in Geometry for Primary School Students // <p><em>Mathematics is a subject studied from elementary education up to the university level. In general, learning mathematics uses a conventional approach using a whiteboard. This method has shortcomings in the process of visualization and simulation, especially in the material of geometry. This research develops a learning application by utilizing Augmented Reality technology with the content of geometry for sixth-grade primary school students. Augmented Reality can visualize and simulate geometry for students with an interaction model. Linear Congruential Generator (LCG) and Fuzzy Tsukamoto methods are used in this application as a randomization method and score determination method. The results obtained from the testing process show that the LCG and fuzzy Tsukamoto methods can run according to the design. In user testing using a questionnaire, the results obtained 4.6 of scale 5.0 indicating that respondents provided good responses for the Augmented Reality Geometry application.</em></p> Hendra Pradibta Odhitya Desta Triswidrananta Maisia Rohmatul Jannah Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Computing Research and Innovation 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 8 1 45 57 10.24191/jcrinn.v8i1.341 Monkeypox and Measles Detection using CNN with VGG-16 Transfer Learning // <p><em>The Monkeypox virus causes the infectious illness monkeypox. This virus is spread by coming into touch with infected animals or humans. Monkeypox is very similar to Measles. The rubeola virus causes measles, a contagious infectious disease. The cause is what distinguishes Monkeypox from Measles sickness. Although they are both carried through the air and generate similar symptoms, Monkeypox and Measles are two separate forms of infectious diseases. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent Measles, while for Monkeypox, no vaccine can be used to prevent infection. In differentiating Monkeypox and Measles disease, the researcher proposes an image classification to distinguish symptoms between Monkeypox and Measles. Researchers used the deep learning method of image classification with Convolutional Neural Network architecture and VGG-16 transfer learning to do the modeling. Transfer learning is a technique that allows a model which has been trained on a dataset to be used on a different dataset. It allowed the model to adapt knowledge from the original data for use in new data. Researchers propose this method because learning using deep learning is very useful for similar images so that the model can accurately predict new data. The result is that </em><em>the VGG-16 model can achieve high accuracy with a value of 83.333% at epoch value = 15.</em></p> M. Hafidz Ariansyah Sri Winarno Ramadhan Rakhmat Sani Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Computing Research and Innovation 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 8 1 32 44 10.24191/jcrinn.v8i1.340 Algorithms for the Extension two Dimensional Fuzzy Signal via Decomposition and Reconstruction in Fuzzy Wavelets // <p><em>The decomposition of an image can be done in the following way: The image is split into a low-resolution part, which can be described by a smaller number of samples than the original image, and a signal difference, which describes the difference between the low-resolution image and the real coded image. Therefore, this low-resolution image is also decomposed into a low-resolution image and a difference image, making more efficient coding possible. This decomposition is repeated several times, so that a hierarchical image decomposition is created. Thus, the low-resolution image is only half the size of the original image. This reduced image is enlarged to the size of the original image. The result is a detailed image that is the same size as the original image. Our problem is: "Can we build algorithms allowing the decomposition and reconstruction of a signal in a fuzzy environment? We will answer in the affirmative. </em><em>This construction is first made possible by one-dimensional fuzzy multiresolution analysis, which will later be extended to two dimensions. In the first part, we recall some definitions and main results obtained on the existence of fuzzy multiresolution analysis in the one-dimensional case, for the decomposition of a fuzzy image. The second part, based on this multi-resolution analysis, presents a fast construction algorithm for the analysis and synthesis of a fuzzy signal. Finally, the third part is nothing else than an extension of this algorithm to 2 dimensions, by the fuzzy multiresolution two-dimensional analysis.</em></p> Jean-louis Akakatshi Ossako Rebecca Walo Omana Richard Bopili Mbotia Antoine Kitombole Tshovu Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Computing Research and Innovation 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 8 1 58 74 Decomposition of A Fuzzy Function By One-Dimensional Fuzzy Multiresolution Analysis // <p><em>Signal compression and data compression are techniques for storing and transmitting signals using fewer bits as possible for encoding a complete signal. A good signal compression scheme requires a good signal decomposition scheme. The decomposition of the signal can be done as follows: The signal is split into a low-resolution part, described by a smaller number of samples than the original signal, and a signal difference, which describes the difference between the low-resolution signal and the real coded signal. Our paper deals with the proofs of these properties in a fuzzy environment. The proof of one- dimensional multiresolution analysis is given. The concept of fuzzy wavelets is introduced and as a byproduct a special fuzzy space of details of a signal is given and an orthonormal basis of </em><em>F</em><em>decomposing the fuzzy signal is obtained. </em></p> Jean-louis Akakatshi Ossako Rebecca Walo Omana Richard Bopili Mbotia Antoine Kitombole Tshovu Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Computing Research and Innovation 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 8 1 84 96 10.24191/jcrinn.v8i1.336 A Performance of SIR Model in Predicting the Number of COVID-19 Cases in Malaysia based on Different Phase of COVID-19 Outbreak // <p><em>Since December 2019, COVID-19 has quickly taken on a massive global form led to the World Health Organization (WHO) classified COVID-19 as a pandemic outbreak as a result. Due to a lack of information about the virus and the absence of medical services in the community during the early stages of this outbreak, the coronavirus spread quickly. Consequently, it becomes extremely difficult to control the influence of the disease outbreak. Thus, this study was aim to predict the peak numbers of the infected population on the first, the second, the third waves and endemic phase by utilizing a Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) predictive model between 25th January and 16th February 2020, corresponding to the entire first wave, the second, between 27th February 2020 and 30th June 2020, corresponding to part of the second wave, the current third wave began on 7th September 2020 and 1st April 2022, corresponding to the endemic phase, still present at the time of writing this article. The model retrieved the data from a reliable source on the Internet and its design is based on certain assumptions. The estimated reproductive value in this model for all simulations is 5.1, which are interconnected factors that have contributed to the rapid increase in the number of COVID-19 cases. This led to the outbreak of a highly contagious disease. The number of infected populations increase with the rate of disease transmission rate of infected increases and vice versa and the spread of COVID-19 from first, second, third waves and endemic reached maximum level in a very short time. The COVID-19 endemic in Malaysia is predicted to peak by the early of March 2020 for the first wave, mid of April 2020 for the second wave, early of October 2020 for the third wave and around April 22, 2022, for the endemic phase. The peak infected was predicted at 16,280,000 persons out of a total of susceptible individuals 33,573,874. Therefore, in addition to maintaining control measures at least until the anticipated peak time has passed, proper crisis management and efficient resource use are essential for successfully combating the endemic.</em></p> Nur Fatihah Fauzi Nurizatul Syarfinas Ahmad Bakhtiar Nur Izzati Khairudin Huda Zuhrah Ab. Halim Nor Hayati Shafii Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Computing Research and Innovation 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 8 1 75 83 10.24191/jcrinn.v8i1.334 Heutagogical Approach in Online English Pronunciation Learning: Student Awareness Survey // <p><em>English language learners have difficulties in English in pronouncing fricative consonants, voiced and voiceless TH, plosive consonants and vowel sounds. Serious speech mistakes can lead to miscommunication since poor pronunciation abilities make it difficult for other people to hear what you are saying. Additionally, students may miss their lecturers' direct explanations of proper pronunciation when taking online English lessons with inconsistent Internet access. Proper pronunciation can help students participate in conversations, form connections, and improve graduates' employability abilities. Furthermore, pronunciation skills are learnt independently at higher education institutions. Before designing a web-based tool for self-directed learning of English pronunciation, the designers must get feedback from the students about their self-directed learning, self-evaluation of English language proficiency and English learning experiences through Online Distance Learning (ODL). This survey is a preliminary survey towards the development of a heutagogical English pronunciation application. An online questionnaire was disseminated to 424 respondents from various higher education institutions in Malaysia.  In this survey, firstly we aimed to get feedback from the students about their self-directed learning, self-evaluation of English language proficiency and English learning experiences through Online Distance Learning (ODL). The survey consisted of demographic data of respondents, standardized test of English language proficiency, self-evaluation of English language proficiency and English language learning experiences during COVID-19. The findings suggested that although language learners have developed their self-directed learning skills, they still need to improve these skills in learning the language using ODL. Learners consider themselves as having average English language proficiency. They were responsible for improving their pronunciation skills and needed assistant tools to improve their pronunciation skills. It is recommended that an application that uses a heutagogical approach such as Speech-to-Text and Text-to Speech need to be developed. </em></p> Noorfaizalfarid Mohd Noor Latisha Asmaak Shafie Nuralya Maisarah Kamarulzaman Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Computing Research and Innovation 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 8 1 379 393 10.24191/jcrinn.v7i2.333 Comparison of Fuzzy Time Series and ARIMA Model for Predicting Stock Prices // <p><em>The stock market has always been a contentious topic in society, and it is a place where economic standards are established. The stock market is incredibly unpredictable and turbulent. This means that the shares may fluctuate for reasons that are sometimes difficult to understand. Due to this uncertainty, many investors believe the stock market as a risky investment. Therefore, having an accurate picture of future market environment is crucial to minimising losses. Forecasting is a technique of predicting the future based on the outcome of the previous data. There are a wide range of forecasting algorithms, however, this study only focuses on these two techniques: Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARIMA) model and Fuzzy Time Series (FTS) Model. The goal of this study is to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of the ARIMA model and the FTS model in predicting sample data of stock prices of Top Glove Corporation Berhad since this company is the largest glove supplier in the world and plays a significant role in the Covid-19 global pandemic crisis. The error measures that were taken into consideration consist of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Square Error (MSE), and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE). These measurements were computed numerically and graphically using a statistical programme called EViews. The outcome shows that the ARIMA model performs better than the FTS model in terms of forecasting accuracy and provides the lowest values of MAPE, MSE, and RMSE, which are 10.58757, 0.926354, and 0.962473, respectively.</em></p> Nor Syazwina Binti Mohd Hanafiah Nor Hayati Binti Shafii Nur Fatihah Binti Fauzi Diana Sirmayunie Mohd Nasir Nor Azriani Mohamad Nor Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Computing Research and Innovation 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 8 1 366 378 10.24191/jcrinn.v7i2.332 e-Runner: A Mobile Application for Campus Food Delivery Service // <p><em>Nowadays, technology has played a vital role in revolutionizing the food delivery service and benefits the students, runners, and food outlets in many ways. Life as a student is known to be challenging due to academic load, assignment deadlines, bouncing back and forth to class, extra-curricular activities, etc. This is a typical daily scenario on campus that require good time management. In the preliminary investigation of this study, students prefer to take away their food and dine in their rooms so that they will not waste their time by spending too much time in the cafeteria. It is found that convenience is the prime factor for the students as the orders can be made as simple as a few clicks on any mobile device, and the food and beverages are delivered to their doorstep. Additionally, this can prevent them from spending too much or wasting time buying food. Since food delivery becoming popular and preferable recently, thus, this study is aimed to develop a mobile application named e-Runner for the campus food delivery system. Students can make a food order, check the order status, and view a variety of food and beverages from several food outlets. The modified Waterfall Model has been used as the methodology of this study and consists of 4 phases, namely Requirement Analysis, Design, Implementation, and Testing. The application has been tested using two types of testing; Functionality and Usability Testing. The testing results show that this application has many benefits, such as saving time, convenience and act as an all-in-one platform. Furthermore, it can enhance students' lifestyles and can improve customer experience.</em></p> Jiwa Noris Hamid Ammar Adnan Hawa Mohd Ekhsan Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Computing Research and Innovation 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 8 1 357 365 10.24191/jcrinn.v7i2.331 Determining the Criteria of Choosing Tour Packages in Langkawi Island Using FAHP // <p><em>Malaysia enters the endemic phase of Covid-19 on 1<sup>st</sup> April 2022. Since then, the Malaysia’s economy has started to recover, and domestic tourism has also restarted. Tourism is one of the factors that contributed to the economy. Avoiding the headache to plan their own trips, tourists usually count on tour operators to turn their dream vacations into realities. Booking a tour is the easiest way for a traveller to experience a foreign land and at the same time they could enjoy their vacation and visit the best spots. The main objective of this study is to determine the main criteria of a tour packages in Langkawi Island by using Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP). The five criteria identified are transportation, cost, food service, accommodation, and tour guide. Results showed that the transportation is the most important criteria a tourist look forward in the selection of a tour package. </em></p> Ku Auni Dalili Ku Zahrin Huda Zuhrah Ab Halim Mohd Fazril Izhar Mohd Idris Nur Fatihah Fauzi Nurizatul Syarfinas Ahmad Bakhtiar Nur Izzati Khairudin Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Computing Research and Innovation 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 8 1 349 356 10.24191/jcrinn.v7i2.330 Development of Mobile Application with Geolocation Technology for Car Service Workshop // <p><em>Mobile application with geolocation function has been on the market for quite some time. It has been implemented on most of the application to detect the user current location. With the lack of use and awareness of this features, we took that opportunities to develop mobile app and collaborate with YS Auto Workshop. It will detect the customer current location when they request for car breakdown from YS Auto workshop. Notification will be sent to the manager of the workshop and can see the marker on user current location and take an action. Main objectives are to design and develop mobile app and to evaluate its usage using user acceptance test in improving the user needs. Agile methodology has been used based on requirement and it is suitable in the development of mobile application. The development of the system has use agile method which has fifth phases including planning, analysis, design, development, and testing. Three expert users involve during Functionality Testing meanwhile thirty random selected respondents from district of Batang Kali involved in the experiment and perform Heuristic Evaluation and User Acceptance Test questionnaires. Analysis shown that application is interesting and helpful. The system is developed successfully and can make more improvement for the future.</em></p> Nor Arzami Othman Mohd Nizam Osman Khairul Anwar Sedek Muhammad Farid Mohd Bohari Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Computing Research and Innovation 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 8 1 338 348 10.24191/jcrinn.v7i2.327 A Low-Cost Home Security Notification System Using IoT and Telegram Bot: A Design and Implementation // <p><em>Home security is a critical issue, especially for the civilians to protect their property from harm. Currently, the increase in home breaking usually occurs during school holidays and public holiday seasons. Therefore, to overcome the problem and the main objective is to design and develop a low-cost home security notification system using PIR sensor to detect movement of intruders, Raspberry Pi Camera, GPS module integrated with Raspberry Pi Zero WH to send an alert notification message with image, date, location, and time via Telegram Bot to the house owner’s and people nearby through a smart phone. The system utilizes the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) by implementing the waterfall model as the methodology. Three experiments were conducted to examine the effectiveness of the system which is sensor detection range, response time and user acceptance test (UAT). The finding indicates that the home security notification system was efficient, effective, low-cost, and easy to use. Besides, the system can detect the presence of the intruder and send the notification message in a reasonable time. Meanwhile, the result from the UAT indicates that the proposed system has a positive impact and to be well accepted by the majority of the users. Hence, the system can help the house owners to take immediate action such as calling the neighbourhood association or police department authority when the system detects an intruder in the house. </em></p> Mohd Nizam Osman Muhammad Haika Faeq Ismail Khairul Anwar Sedek Nor Arzami Othman Mushahadah Maghribi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Computing Research and Innovation 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 8 1 327 337 10.24191/jcrinn.v7i2.325 A Systematic Literature Review: Optimization Timetable in Education to Support Work-Life Balance (WLB) // <p><em>Scheduling academic staff timetables is crucial and necessary to avoid redundancy and clash of class between teacher and student timetables. A good timetable allows students and teachers to manage their time and support a good and healthy lifestyle. However, with the scheduling, academic staff timetable may use many procedures to get efficient results. Therefore, this paper provides a gap of study for existing work on Optimization Timetable to support Work-Life Balance (WLB) regarding their market commercial and research purposes. The methodology of this study was conducted using a Systematic Literature Review (SLR). Result: two findings investigate 1) relevant optimization timetable scheduling used and 2) the method for timetable optimization to support WLB. The strengths and weaknesses of the features and utilities behind each study are also presented to provide a further understanding of the gaps and weaknesses of each body of research. We conclude that these studies are still insufficient and require further evaluation and improvement.</em></p> Noorrezam Yusop Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Computing Research and Innovation 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 8 1 316 326 10.24191/jcrinn.v7i2.324