Heutagogical Approach in Online English Pronunciation Learning: Student Awareness Survey


  • Noorfaizalfarid Mohd Noor Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Perlis Branch
  • Latisha Asmaak Shafie Academy of Language Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA Perlis Branch
  • Nuralya Maisarah Kamarulzaman Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Perlis Branch




Online Distance Learning, Heutagogy, Online Web Application, Student Awareness


English language learners have difficulties in English in pronouncing fricative consonants, voiced and voiceless TH, plosive consonants and vowel sounds. Serious speech mistakes can lead to miscommunication since poor pronunciation abilities make it difficult for other people to hear what you are saying. Additionally, students may miss their lecturers' direct explanations of proper pronunciation when taking online English lessons with inconsistent Internet access. Proper pronunciation can help students participate in conversations, form connections, and improve graduates' employability abilities. Furthermore, pronunciation skills are learnt independently at higher education institutions. Before designing a web-based tool for self-directed learning of English pronunciation, the designers must get feedback from the students about their self-directed learning, self-evaluation of English language proficiency and English learning experiences through Online Distance Learning (ODL). This survey is a preliminary survey towards the development of a heutagogical English pronunciation application. An online questionnaire was disseminated to 424 respondents from various higher education institutions in Malaysia.  In this survey, firstly we aimed to get feedback from the students about their self-directed learning, self-evaluation of English language proficiency and English learning experiences through Online Distance Learning (ODL). The survey consisted of demographic data of respondents, standardized test of English language proficiency, self-evaluation of English language proficiency and English language learning experiences during COVID-19. The findings suggested that although language learners have developed their self-directed learning skills, they still need to improve these skills in learning the language using ODL. Learners consider themselves as having average English language proficiency. They were responsible for improving their pronunciation skills and needed assistant tools to improve their pronunciation skills. It is recommended that an application that uses a heutagogical approach such as Speech-to-Text and Text-to Speech need to be developed.


Download data is not yet available.


Burger, K., & Samuel, R. (2017). The Role of Perceived Stress and Self-Efficacy in Young People’s Life

Satisfaction: A Longitudinal Study. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46, 78–90.

Chiu, T. K. F., Lin, T. J., & Lonka, K. (2021). Motivating Online Learning: The Challenges of COVID19

and Beyond. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 30(3), 187–190.


Dhawan, S. (2020). Online learning: A panacea in the time of COVID-19 crisis. Journal of Educational

Technology Systems, 49(1), 5-22. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0047239520934018

Ellialtı, M., & Batur, Z. (2021). Academic Listening Skills of the International University Students in Turkey. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies, 9(3), DOI: 10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.9n.3p.20

Emiroğlu, S., & Pınar, F. N. (2013). Relationship between listening and other skill types. Turkish Studies-Interna-tional Periodical for the Languages, Literature and His-tory of Turkish or Turkic, 8(4), 769-782

Fareed, M., Ashraf, A., & Bilal, M. (2016). ESL learners’ writing skills: Problems, factors andsuggestions. Journal of education and social sciences, 4(2), 81-92.

Hasan, A. (2000). Learners’ Perceptions of Listening Comprehension Problems. Language, Culture and

Curriculum, 13, 137-153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07908310008666595

Hase, S. (2009). Heutagogy and e-learning in the workplace: Some challenges and opportunities. Impact:

J. Appl. Res. Workplace e-Learn., 1.

Hayashi, T., Yamamoto, R., Inoue, K., Yoshimura, T., Watanabe, S., Toda, T., Takeda, K., Zhang, Y., &

Tan, X. (2020). Espnet-TTS: Unified, Reproducible, and Integratable Open-Source End-to-End

Text-to-Speech Toolkit. ICASSP 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Acoust Speech

and Signal Processing (ICASSP). Published. https://doi.org/10.1109/icassp40776.2020.9053512

Humphreys, P., Haugh, M., Fenton-Smith, B., Lobo, A., Michael, R., & Walkinshaw, I. (2012). Tracking

International students’ English proficiency over the first semester of undergraduate study. IELTS

Research Reports, 1-41. https://www.ielts.org/-/media/research-


Hyland, K., & Hyland, F. (Eds.). (2019). Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issues.Cambridge university press. Retrieved from http://www.tesl-ej.org/wordpress/issues/volume11/ej42/ej42r7/?wscr

Kacetl, J, & Klímová, B. (2019). Use of smartphone applications in English language learning—a challenge for foreign language education. Education Sciences, 9 (3), 179, 10.3390/educsci9030179

Kashinathan, S., & Aziz, A. A. (2021). ESL Learners’ Challenges in Speaking English in Malaysian

Classroom. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and

Development, 10(2),983-991.

Lai, Y., Saab, N., & Admiraal, W. (2022). University students’ use of mobile technology in self-directed

language learning: Using the integrative model of behavior prediction. Computers & Education,

, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2021.104413.

Liguori, E. W., and Winkler, C. (2020). From offline to online: challenges and opportunities for

Entrepreneurship education following the COVID-19 Pandemic. Entrepreneurship Educ.

Pedagogy 3, 346–351. doi: 10.1177/2515127420916738

Maqableh, M., and Alia, M. (2021). Evaluation online learning of undergraduate students under

lockdown Amidst covid-19 pandemic: the online learning experience and students' satisfaction.

Child. Youth serv.

Rev. 128, 106160. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2021.106160

Moore, R. (2020). Developing lifelong learning with heutagogy: contexts, critiques, and challenges.

Distance Education, 41(3), 381-401. doi:10.1080/01587919.2020.1766949

Nalini Arumugam, Geraldine De Mello, Selvajothi Ramalingam, Mohammad Nor Afandi bin Ibrahim, Puspalata C Suppiah, & Isai Amutan Krishnan. (2021). COVID-19: Challenges of Online Teaching among ESL Educators of Private Higher Learning Institutions in Malaysia. English As a Foreign Language International Journal, 25(5), 141–158. Retrieved from https://connect.academics.education/index.php/eflij/article/view/74

Nijat, N., Atifnigar, H., Chandran, K., Selvan, S., & Subramonie, V. (2019). Psychological Factors

that Affect English Speaking Performance among Malaysian Primary School Pupils. American

International Journal of Education and Linguistics Research, 2(2), 64–76.

Pudin, C.S.J. , Nik Mmohamed, N.Z., Din , W. A. n & Edward, E.I. (2021). Pronunciation Errors Among

Malaysian Undergraduates In English For Oral Communication Course. International Journal of

Education, Psychology and Counseling, 6(43), 40-48.

Rajadurai, J. (2001). An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Teaching Pronunciation to

Malaysian TESOL Students. Forum, 39(3), 10-15.

Rao, P. (2019). The Role Of English As A Global Language, 4, 65–79.

Sattar, S., & Salehi, H. (2014). The role of teaching reading strategies in enhancing reading comprehension. International Journal of Current Life Sciences, 4(11), 10922-10928.

Shak, P., Lee, C.S., & Stephen, J. (2016). Pronunciation Problems: A Case Study on English Pronunciation Errors of Low Proficient. International Journal of Language Education and Applied Linguistics (IJLEAL), 4, 25-35.

Sheela Faizura Binti Nik Fauzi, Siti Hafizah Ambi, Abang Fhaeizdhyall & Norseha Unin. (2022). Journal

of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development, 8(1), 186-201.

Web Speech API - Web APIs | MDN. (2022, January 19). MDN Web Docs.


Wei, H. C., and Chou, C. (2020). Online learning performance and satisfaction: do perceptions and readiness matter?. Distance Educ. 41, 1–22. doi: 10.1080/01587919.2020.1724768

Winarso, W., 2016. Assessing the readiness of student learning activity and learning outcome. Journal

Pencerahan, 10(2): 81- 94.

Zadorozhnyy, A., & Yu, B. (2020). The importance of informal digital learning practices for English

language acquisition.

Zaki, A. A., & Yunus, M. M. (2015). Potential of mobile learning in teaching of ESL academic writing. English Language Teaching, 8(6), 11–19.




How to Cite

Mohd Noor, N., Shafie , L. A., & Kamarulzaman , N. M. (2022). Heutagogical Approach in Online English Pronunciation Learning: Student Awareness Survey. Journal of Computing Research and Innovation, 7(2), 379–393. https://doi.org/10.24191/jcrinn.v7i2.333



General Computing