Designing an IoT-based System to Detect the Out-of-pitch Balls in a Football Match
Keywords:IoT-Based, Designing IoT, Ball out detection
The incorrect decision making that referee made during a football match is becoming unsatisfied game or biased game. The problem of how a decision made by the referee when coming to an error in football had been issues that being debate. The player or fans did not seem satisfied when referee decide such as a goal or no goal, penalty or no penalty, direct red card, and mistaken identity. Hence, there must be a plan to tackle the problem by using technology, especially in this era. Therefore, as an initial approach, this paper is focusing on developing a design for the ball out detection using the assistants of the IoT (Internet of Things). Correctly, the IoT approach was used for detecting the ball out of play, i.e. from a football match. Note that this proposed design was built based on data obtained from a survey questionnaire conducted with the experts in football and fans of football regarding the ball out of play system. The evaluation of the proposed design suggested that the proposed design promising to improve the decision-making made in the football match. It is hoped that the study can contribute to the improvement of overall decision making by the referee when coming to ball out or other error that player made.
Balmer, N. J., Nevill, A. M., Lane, A. M., Ward, P., Williams, A. M., & Fairclough, S. H. (2007). Influence
of crowd noise on soccer refereeing consistency in soccer. Journal of Sport Behavior, 30(2).
Camilleri, G., Antonelli, L., Zaraté, P., Gardey, J., Martin, J., Sakka, A., Torres, D., Fernandez, A., Tool
sup-, al, Zarate, P., & Cruz Gardey, J. (2020). Tool support for Generating User Acceptance Tests.
Carlos, L. P., Ezequiel, R., & Anton, K. (2019). How does Video Assistant Referee (VAR) modify the
game in elite soccer? International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 19(4), 646–653.
Ghuman, S. S. (2014). Software Testing Techniques. International Journal of Computer Science and
Mobile Computing, 3(10), 988--993.
Groot, L. (2005). Referees among most important players in soccer tournaments. Journal of Sport and
Social Issues, 29(4), 437–442. https://doi.org/10.1177/0193723505280797
IR obstacle sensor with Arduino - CodeProject. (n.d.). Retrieved August 12, 2020, from
Lopez, E., & Jenkins, P. E. (2019). Offside Detection System Using an Infrared Camera Tracking System.
World Journal of Mechanics, 09(06), 163–176. https://doi.org/10.4236/wjm.2019.96011
Mallo, J., Frutos, P. G., Juárez, D., & Navarro, E. (2012). Effect of positioning on the accuracy of decision
making of association football top-class referees and assistant referees during competitive matches.
Journal of Computing Research and Innovation (JCRINN) Vol. 5 No. 1 (2020) – eISSN: 2600-8793
Journal of Sports Sciences, 30(13), 1437–1445. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2012.711485
Naushad Ali, M. M., Abdullah-Al-Wadud, M., & Lee, S.-L. (2012). An Efficient Algorithm for Detection
of Soccer Ball and Players. Proc. 16th ASTL Control and Networking 16 (2012).
Nevill, A. M., Balmer, N. J., & Mark Williams, A. (2002). The influence of crowd noise and experience
upon refereeing decisions in football. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 3(4), 261–272.
Pandit, P., & Tahiliani, S. (2015). AgileUAT: A Framework for User Acceptance Testing based on User
Stories and Acceptance Criteria. International Journal of Computer Applications, 120(10), 16–21.
Rouse, M. (n.d.). What is IoT (Internet of Things) and How Does it Work? Retrieved August 12, 2020, from
Seo, S. W., & Kim, M. (2017). Estimation of 3D ball motion using an infrared and acoustic vector sensor.
International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence: ICT
Convergence Technologies Leading the Fourth Industrial Revolution, ICTC 2017, 2017-Decem,
White, J. (2020). VAR chaos and controversy in Champions League tie between Manchester City and
Tottenham proves tech is not yet ready. South China Morning Post.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Muhammad Aniq Abqari Rahizad, Tajul Rosli Razak, Shukor Sanim Mohd Fauzi, Ray Adderley JM Gining, Mohammad Hafiz Ismail
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.